Friday, May 21, 2010

I'd like to have my rotting teeth removed and have full mouth dental implants. How?

I can't seem to find a general price on anything and no one seems willing to share the price unless I actually go there in person which means forking out more cash.   

Surely there's a general price for having all teeth removed and replaced with dental implants. I didn't know it was possible until I saw a plastic surgery show where a guy had a face lift - and then went to a type of dentist that showed him two full mouth implants and then an after picture of him smiling with his perfect teeth (Unfortunately, they never went into detail on how it would work. It didn't relate to plastic surgery, I suppose).

I'd like to have my rotting teeth removed and have full mouth dental implants. How?
Be aware not everyone is eligible for implants no matter how much money they have. Poor gums/infection are 2 reasons to defer implants. It is not so simple to say "just give me implants ". If your teeth are rotting out of your mouth, go to a dentist to evaluate you !

RN in Ca.
Reply:at least 200 per tooth to pull the roots out, and 2000 or more for each implant. very very expensive considering there are 26 teeth i think.
Reply:I can tell you that it is extremely expensive. You're talking about oral surgery. Call an oral surgeon's office and ask your question. Big Bucks!
Reply:You should be able to find a dentist that does implants and will give you a rough estimate. Part of the reason they can't quote you over the phone is because they need to see what your current teeth look like so they can decide how many teeth need to be pulled and if your gums are healthy enough to even hold dental implants. The doc has to see your mouth first before he can figure out how much it might cost you. You should be able to make an appointment with several dentists for a consultation though just to see if you are a candidate for dental implants.
Reply:You are probably looking at about $4 -5 thousand.
Reply:go buy a can of baby food and try it, hope you like it cause if you have a bunch of extractions plus implants you will be eating that **** for a while
Reply:I think you are going hit at least $700.00 ea. @ 26 = 18 K USD
Reply:My brother just had this done... He shelled out $30,000 just for the top! and still has to go back for the bottom. His teeth look really good though.

Each tooth had to be root canaled and then a metal post was implanted into the bone. Then they put porcelain veneers on to the rod's. He said it didn't hurt to much though.
Reply:Dental implant surgery is very safe nowadays. My cousin got her dental implants and lasik surgery in India by a company called Forerunners Healthcare. The Price for dental and lasik surgery is very less in India. She paid 25% of the price she was quoted in America.

Forerunners Healthcare is very famous in India They arrange Dental surgery, jaw surgery, lasik eye surgery, Dental Implants etc for foreign patients in India. I read a lot about them in the Newspapers and magazines- about their patient stories.

They arrange financing for USA, Canadian, UK and other international patients who plan to have surgery abroad for low cost, as dental and eye surgery is not covered by insurance. They also have photos pasted of their International patients. You can checkout their website. There are huge cost savings. As a doctor I personally believe that surgery can be easily handled in India, as the quality of healthcare available In India is simply best in the world. The surgeons are USA/UK trained and facilities are 5 star.

Hope this helps.
Reply:I've had two patients who I finally gave up on and sent for the treatment you seek. They each spent about $50,000.

Reply:It is not clear in which state or city you reside. But still it may not be possible to arrive at a general price for dental implants. It could be anywhere between $5-8K for both implant and subsequent crown. But what would be like quantity discount I may also try to find out. I hope you realize that full mouth implants is huge money, that would leave many a patients almost pauper after the procedure. You must be some stinking rich guy. Still anyone would like to make a saving. Look if any best deals are available. I recently checked up in India where I was quoted $1200 (Nobel Biocare implant + Procera crown) at the best surgery. I made an internet search like: affordable and best deal implant dentistry in india. Make a try and good luck.
Reply:You can save up to 80% with no waiting period to use your benefits after sign up. . Call me with any questions
Reply:You are talking about a full mouth restoration and you will be shelling out no less than $30,000...and that's the low ball price.Insurance doesn't cover implants because it is considered cosmetic.The only way you are going to get the info you need would be to go in for a consult.

Questions about the Dental Hygiene field?

I am a freshman in college and have decided to pursue a career in dental hygiene. However, I recenetly talked to a girl who is a RDH and she said that she hates the job! This is the first time I've heard this from a hygienist and I am just wondering if any other RDH agrees? Also, if you are someone who gets queasy with blood or surgery, would this be a good field?

Questions about the Dental Hygiene field?
I am a hygienist and believe i am sometimes overpaid. You have to be working in an office where you like the dentist and the other women. It can be a difficult job when you are booked solid and don't have time to hit the bathroom, but working 3-4 days a week is quite nice. I live in New England and make $40.00 an hour and have 401 k. If you get a yuck mouth, I use my ultrasonic which quickly removes plaque without having to touch it. As far as being queasy with blood, well, it can be bloody. Have you observed a hygienist in your own dentist's office? Ask if you can first. It's actually more bloody being an assistant who has to deal with extractions and such. I love people and have bonded so well with the same patients that they will only see me. I graduated in '04' and am very happy with my decision. I do remember being very self conscious ( and still am a little) when I tell people I am a hygienist because some people will say, " How can you stand working in people's mouths?". I tell them that I love my job and that usually shuts them right up. Soon I will be taking 4 months off for maternity then only working 3 days a week. Perfect career if you want a family some day. Hope this helps. Good luck and study hard!!!

Has anyone had open flap surgery on thier gums?

I have gum disease and have been getting deep cleaning treatments at my dental hospital for about two years. My dentist suggest that I should have open flap surgery which will much improve the condtion of my gums.

I am pretty scared about it? Does it hurt? How is the recovery? can you eat?

Please help!!

Has anyone had open flap surgery on thier gums?
no but i know a few who need their other flaps that are in need of a good cleaning
Reply:ok first things first! DONT panic!

Its sounds scary ok but in fact its not as bad as it sounds. You will be given local anesthetic to numb your gums (this numb sensation can last generally up to 2-3 hours). You WILL feel sore afterwards but given good oral hygiene instruction you should notice a difference in your gum health. Corsodyl mouthwash is great after such surgery. ok it can cause some staining but that can be sorted easily afterwards and is not worth putting you off.

You may find you dont want to eat much later the same day but you should be ok to eat the day after but bear in mind you dont want to attack a T-bone steak!

It IS advisable to eat something before the treatment especially if you are nervous as this can help to keep up your sugar level and help you feel better in yourself rather than feel a little faint. . but this is easily avoided by eating normally before the appointment. So DONT starve yourself. . unless you are instructed to for something like general anasthetic etc.

You will be fine. .. .a little uncomfortable but like I said.....Corsodyl is great for this. . but do not use if taking metronidazole (certain type of antibiotic)

Hope this reassures


Adult braces and dental work. How much $$ is too much?

I am planning on getting braces to fix my mild overbite and bottom teeth. I am 36. I am excited ; I have wanted to do this a long time. Today in a routine dentist appointment to get ready, I was told I need a root canal and crown to the tune of $1200 ( with my dental insurance discount) . I have to have the maintenance stuff done before the braces in December, but wow - I was not expecting that expense. I have about $3000 saved toward the braces now- but with this added expense I am down to $2000. I don't want to finance the braces, but guess I could in order to get started. I also have to have an old root canal tooth gone bad way in the back extracted- oral surgery for this tomorrow. That is $1100. This is getting really expensive. I am planning on an implant to replace the tooth that is being taken out tomorrow. But the braces have to be done first. ok... at my age is this worth it all? By the time it is said and done we are talking about $15,000 to my teeth.

Adult braces and dental work. How much $$ is too much?
It's expensive but so worth it. My self esteem was so high after I got my braces off - I couldn't stop smiling! I had really crooked teeth so it was a huge difference.

Most offices will do payment plans - kind of like paying a house or car payment. You pay a certain amount per month for X amount of years. I paid mine every month for 3 years. Talk to your orthodontist or dentist- they'll work with you to make sure that you get your braces.
Reply:I am 34... I was quoted 15k for mine as well - mine would include breaking my jawS and of course braces and resetting for like 2 years... i just think that in my case it isnt worth it with kid's college and possible new cars needed in the future... you should definitely get the root canal fixed and so on and if you REALLY need dental help just get another opinion... otherwise, i didnt think it was worth it for me... but you need to take care of the things you already know about... no need in suffering more in the future! good luck!!!!!
Reply:Wow, this really makes me reconsider. I'm 24, so I hope it might still be early enough that it won't be so difficult. I have a good dental insurance plan that covers braces for adults, but I guess I need to start looking into how much it covers and what other types of stuff I'm going to need to do prior.

Thanks for asking this question!
Reply:Yes it is worth it....I'm only 24 but I have seen my father and mother have dental problems....not b/c they arnt taking good care of there teeth....just b/c type of things that have went wrong....I know that makes no sense but I'm sure you kinda know what I mean right?? lol Well my father spent i think close to 5 grand on just his top teeth no braces and the bottom ones where fine to start off with....although his teeth wea never all that bad to begin with it was something he felt he had to and needed to get done for cosmetic and heath reasons!! I know money can play a big part in getting this work done but you arnt Evan considered middle age 36 is young and you should enjoy Ur life with a beautiful smile!!
Reply:I'm in university and I was quoted 7K for braces alone (20 months of treatment %26amp; this would be my second time having them). With the addition of the other proceedures you are having it seems that the 15K is a "normal" rate, although I agree it seems outrageous (especially when on the "student budget")!

Hole in my gum above dental implant?

I had a dental implant about 6 years ago. In the past couple months, a small hole has appeared in my gum above the implanted tooth, all the way down to the metal implant. It doesn't hurt much (if at all - it could be my mind playing tricks on me). I have an appointment with the oral surgeon who performed the implant surgery to check it out. The most likely solution is a gum graft. The only problem? My health insurance doesn't cover it, and my dental insurance is not much help either. Does anyone know how expensive these run, or how vitally necessary it is? Has anyone had this problem in the past?

Hole in my gum above dental implant?
Very! I had gum surgery on a upper/left molar and it was $900 and that was 6yrs ago.

I am looking for a dental implant to be done in Mexico
Reply:they have to make a hole to make the implant fit, at the end of the hole is a metal point meant to clip onto dental structures.
Reply:If the hole is towards where the root used to be it as called a dehiscense. This is NOT a good sign. The implant is not surrounded by bone on that surface and the implant is now exposed to all of the bacteria in the mouth. Getting it covered is very important and do it ASAP. Grafting here in MA will run ~$800. Periodontists, gum surgeons, are better at this than oral surgeons.
Reply:Gum graft is covered with some dental insurances. Considering the high costs that you are looking at, I recommend to go with the program. It will help you with implant dentistry as well as any services performed on your gums.

Wife is having oral surgery...need your experiences/ideas?

My wife is going in for oral surgery to remove most of her teeth. Due to years of diabetes, lack of dental care prior to my getting involved, and a dentist who did several root canals that ended up being extracted...she has finally decided to take on this drastic action..

Needless to say she is scared to death about this. It doesn't help that she is clueless about what to do after they are removed, and until she gets fitted with braces.

Would greatly appreciate to hear the experiences of people who went through the same thing. How did you get by? Any good ideas for a soft diet? Recipe ideas? Remember that she has diabetes and this is only going to complicate matters.

Wife is having oral surgery...need your experiences/ideas?
soup is always a good option dietwise, my dad had someting similar to that done and lived off soup for a couple of weeks! Vegetable Soup is the best try not to get any meat in the soup as that will make it harder to eat.
Reply:my ex just went thru this, had 10 of his front teeth removed, he ate whatever was soft,anything you can buy at the store, mashed potatoes, yogurt, pudding...shakes..all can be sugar took several weeks for his mouth to heal, and then he was fitted with his fake teeth....he can now eat anything except his fingernails...after 40 years of biting them he can't anymore....good luck!
Reply:Diabetes will impact recovery time as well.

You have described her condition pretty well, and it sounds like this is the very best solution for her, not the worst. She will be free from all the infections and pain that she must have been having for some years now.

Diabetes complicates everything. Fear makes it worse.

Smoothies are a great idea, fruit or veggie and frozen bananas will make her gum tissue feel better if there is swelling (check with the oral surgeon and her dentist).

Creamed soups, all the obvious things. Over the counter products are good if you don't have the time to labor over a stove.

No spicy foods, obviously, but also no foods that have a lot of herbs or small bits in them either.

Good luck. And look at it this way, your wife is going to have a healthier mouth than she ever has had before. Whatever she does get, dentures or partials (not implants), will be a relief after all she's been through. Poor thing.
Reply:Whoa..question...If your wife is a sever Diabetic to the point she is loosing most of her teeth, why in the world are "braces" of any kind being considered given her diabetic issue?...IF on the other hand you don't mean braces but instead mean Partial Dentures, that's a whole different situation. Tell you what, I'm adding to this response a couple of pages from my instructions I give my patients. If they don't cover your issues let me know,

“Immediate Dentures”

What Are Immediate Dentures?

1....They are dentures that are “immediately” placed into the mouth when the last natural

tooth is extracted.

Are “Immediate Dentures” A Good Idea?

1....They are a very good idea. They provide stability in jaw relationships during the

healing process.

2....They cover the extraction sites and provide,if you will, a plastic bandage affect.

3....The likelihood of getting a dry socket is all but removed.

4....The healing period is usually quicker and with less trauma.

What Is The Average Healing Period?

1....The average healing period following extraction’s is between 4 and 6 months.

2....Health problems such as Diabetes can slow the process however.

Is There A follow Up Procedure”?

1....At approximately 2 to 3 weeks following the extraction’s I always recommend that the

“Temporary Soft Liner Procedure” be instigated.

What Is The Temporary Soft Liner Procedure?

1....A layer of temporary soft liner is placed inside of the immediate denture. The soft liner

material flows over the inside surface of the denture filling in any place that the gums have

shrunk away do the the healing process.

2....The liner performs three basic functions. It refits the denture. It provides a degree of

comfort. It helps maintain the jaw relationship that was established when the dentures

were created.

How Often Should The Liner Be Placed?

1...The first layer of liner should be placed by the second or third week.

2....Follow up liners should be placed every three to four weeks following the first


3....Once the basic healing has taken place, 4 to 6 months, the immediate dentures should

be Dental Laboratory Relined.

What Happens If “NO” Follow Up Procedure Is Taken?

1....As the gums heal they shrink. The shrinking allows the dentures to change position .

2....The edges are usually the first areas that begin to dig in and cause sore spots.

3....If the edges are continually cut off to rid sore spots, by the time the gums heal the jaws

will have over closed. The chin and nose will be closer together. The corners of the mouth

will turn down. Facial tissues will no longer be properly supported.....”IF” the dentures are

relined in this position the loss of features will get worse.

This information is provided by the Denture Pro. %26lt;;

"Soft Liner Treatment Series"

This treatment plan is designed to comfort damaged tissue as well as provide a functional fit while the health of the gums are being restored.

Following extraction's the extraction sites begin a healing process. This process will take between five and six months depending on the initial condition of the the gums and teeth prior to extraction's. The more sever the infection at the time of extraction's the longer it can be expected for the tissue to heal following extraction's.

If "Immediate Dentures" were placed following the extraction's you can depend on the fact that they will cease to fit and function within ten days post extraction's. This of course provides the patient with a great deal of discomfort and frustration. The dentures seem to be hard and rough and do not stay in place. As the gums heal they also change shape and that change means that they get smaller. As they get smaller the dentures inside surfaces no longer fit the gums. The dentures become loose and have a great tendency to slip and slid.

At this point the Temporary Soft Liner Treatment Series can provide both comfort and a good margin of fit and function. The Dentist or Denture professional will mix a powder and a liquid together in precise amounts. The mixture will take on the consistency of honey. The mixture is then spread over the inner surface of the denture and placed back in the mouth, the patient being instructed to close their jaws until the teeth fully touch.

After a few minutes the mixture gels into a rubbery like liner. It bonds to the denture surface and molds itself to the contours of the gums. In it's rubbery state it provides a comfort layer between the gums and the hard surface of the denture. Because it was placed in the denture while in a honey like state it flows and molds. After gelling into the rubbery state the patient will find the denture far more comfortable and stable.

As the gums continue to heal and change it will be necessary to resurface the existing Soft Liner with additional layers of the Soft Liner Material to refit the inner surface of the denture. In most cases the patient will need the Liner resurfaced about every three weeks. Once total healing has taken place a reline impression can be taken over the existing liner and the denture sent to a dental laboratory for reline processing. This process will remove the liners and restore the inner surface of the denture back to regular denture plastic. Minor adjustments may be required following the relining, but that is to be expected.

The Soft Liner System is also used to restore damaged gum tissue when a patient has attempted to wear a denture far longer than the dentures or the gums can tolerate.

If you have any questions regarding this information please write me.

The Denture pro.
Reply:If she is getting put to sleep, it will suck. She will hate the stuff that makes u go night night!!
Reply:I can tell you that it is very important for her to eat something not long after the surgery. If she is being put to sleep, she won't be able to eat or drink for 4-6 hours prior to the treatment. When she wakes up and goes home, she needs to eat something like a milkshake. If that is out of the question, it needs to be something like yogurt, sherbert, coat her stomach so that she won't feel sick. After keeping that down, then she should try to eat soft foods like warm (NOT hot) chicken noodle soup, macaroni and cheese, mashed potatoes, etc. Nothing she really has to chew hard before swallowing. The first 2-3 days are going to be tough, but after that she will start feeling like normal again. Just be sure to take care of the extraction sites, just as the doctor instructs, and NO smoking!
Reply:I know how your wife feels. I had good teeth until a diving accident fractured my jaw and loosened all my teeth. I am a pensioner and had to wait on public health system for free dentist. I waited 6 years just for an appointment. Then they took my top teeth out in stages, took my bottom teeth all out at once (No general anesthetic) just local,.

If they offer to do mold for dentures immediately after your wife's extractions, say NO. They did that with me and I had all sorts of problems as they did the mold before swelling went down, so consequently, dentures were too big.

I have had dentures for 8 years and hardly wear them as although you have regular check up and replacements, they do not replace top and bottom at same time , so my bottom teeth are good fit, my top ones are not.

Your wife may not have any of my problems, but just be sure to ask for exactly what you want.

As for after, do not smoke, as when you draw on a smoke it draws blood from wound site. Eat custard, soup, mashed food, strained food (baby food in jars is not a silly idea).

Regularly rinse mouth with slightly warm water with a tiny pinch salt.

I wish your wife all the very best. Pain is manageable with Nurofen Panadol , or similar. All the best.
Reply:First, I must say. It sounds as if you are bringing her down and bringing yourself up by stating that this happened before you became involved with her. You dont need to justify, support instead will help her greatly. My wife of 18 years has gone through the same ordeal this past week although, she does not have diabetes. I was there for her at every step and shall remain there as she continues to recover. I do recommend sitting with her while she has the procedure so she can feel your touch and know you are nearby. My wife was also given valium by the dr, that worked wonders for her. In fact I think I was more stressed than she. After the extractions she will be pretty sore. Allow her to rest as much as possible and pamper her where she needs. It will be a relief to her. She will, if she is like my wife, look in the mirror and tell you how bad she looks. just support her and tell her how great she will look when she has her new teeth. As for food, I am not sure what a diabetic can eat for sure but I have found these foods great for my wife. Her favorite is grilled cheese, cut the crust off and let her pull off small chunks. scrambled eggs soft work well too. deep fry some french fries and chop them in the blender with a little ketchup. She loves them and they really dont look too bad. Get her some diabetic pudding, freeze pops are soothing, so is jello. Broths and pasta work well, just make sure you chop the pasta in a blender. The only meats that will work well I believe are fish, unbreaded. If you are like me you are on a tight budget but, it is a good idea to spend a little more to get foods that really work. Stay away from acids, baby food is good but you can make your own, just chop up fresh fruit and it will be much cheaper and, dont be afraid to feed her the first day or so, she wont want to eat much but, make her feel good any way possible. Do the housework for her so she can rest, that will aide the recovery. I also have been keeping a constant supply of flavored water in a squeeze bottle for my wife. That has proven to be very soothing. I hope this information helps, my best wishes to you and your wife. All will be ok.

Yellow Teeth

My cat has bad dental problems, I don't know what to do..?

Yesterday, two of my cats teeth fell out, I took him to the vet and it turns out a lot more of his teeth are missing--she said that he seems to have a dental disease causing this that some cats get. The total cost for me to have his surgery ie..clean mouth remove teeth going to be $800 I cannot afford this right now due to a recent financial situation and none of my family members can help me out. I also am worried about the prognosis and the cost of any ongoing care. Should I put him to sleep. I love him with all my heart, but I don't want him to be in pain and it's not fair to him if he can't get proper treatment. This really sucks :(

My cat has bad dental problems, I don't know what to do..?
One of my cats was thought to have this disease. Vets are not very understanding and most will not let you make payments. Mine won't and I have been going to him for many years. I was told to contact the humane society. They have a system where I am (in Indiana), that is like medicaid, except for your pet. It turned out that my cat did not have the disease, so I never had to ask for the help. I do know that I was told that the disease, is like a cat is allergic to its own teeth, or the plaque on the teeth. They recomended cleaning his teeth and putting him on drugs for the rest of his life. I would definitely ask for help now and not wait. Treatment needs to be started right away.
Reply:Is he even in pain?? Also usually they will have some financial plan at the vet so you can make monthly payments or something
Reply:get in toutch with your local animal shelter, they may be able to advise you on low cost vet care or be able to contact your vet and try to negotiate some sort of payment plan so you don't have to pay all at once. If you still can't afford it, you could ask if the shelter will take him. Do you not have pet insurance?
Reply:Check with your vet to ask if they have a payment plan. Some clinics also offer low-cost services if you can prove financial need and look to be a good pet owner that has fallen on hard times.

Also check with cat rescue groups and animal shelters. Many will do lower-cost vet work, or may be able to refer you to a fund designated to help owners pay for their pets' needed care. Perhaps someone may step up to pay for your cat's care. (Don't count on it, but I've seen it happen.)

Once your cat has the surgery, you should not need to pay much for ongoing care. Make sure he is eating a dry food (canned is awful for cats' teeth) and keep up on his dental checkups. Although, if all of his teeth are in bad shape, you may be forced to feed him canned since he'll have difficulty chewing. You may want to start brushing his teeth after surgery to avoid having to do another dental cleaning for several years. Once his damaged teeth have been removed, you should be able to maintain his oral health without much more surgery, if any.

As a last resort, you may want to take your cat to a shelter or cat rescue. If he's young, friendly, and otherwise healthy, he may have a chance at adoption. It's not fair to keep him in pain if you can't see a way to alleviate his problems in the near future. Oral problems are extremely painful and the bacteria cause your cat to feel run-down and listless, not to mention dental disease can cause heart and lung problems.

How old is your cat? If he's 10 years old and you can't find anyone to pay for his treatment or find a way to do it yourself, perhaps it is better to have him euthanized. Old cats with needed vet work are not good candidates for adoption. Most shelters will euthanize these cats upon accepting them into the shelter as their chance of adoption is almost zero.

Good luck! I feel for you and your tough situation. Take care.
Reply:I'm sorry that you cat is sick ... but why don't you call PAWS (Progressive Animal Welfare System) and tell them that you ''love him and want to keep him, but you are in a 'financial bind' and can't afford the $800 it would cost to 'treat him' properly'" and ask them if they have the numbers of ANY PLACES that can help you with the bills. Tell them that you 'don't want' to have him 'put to sleep' and you don't want to 'give him up' either ... you just need HELP to get him 'better' so he can live a good, healthy life.
Reply:Do you have any Farm or Breeder vets in your area. You may want to start with going to and look up breeders in your area and ask them what vet they use. That is how I found my vet for teeth. They are a 45 minute drive for me but when I had my PureBreed Siamese's teeth pulled just like you I was quoted $800.00 and the Farm/Breeder Vet charged me $118.00.

They pulled all the back teeth just leaving the front top %26amp; bottom fangs forward. Do NOT PULL these ones or his tongue may hang out.

Another option is if they are falling out.... and I know this sounds crazy but is to keep him on antibiotics long term and let nature take its course they will eventually all fall out on there own.
Reply:There is an oganisation called which can make loans to cover high vet expenses and they either don't charge interest or it is very low.

I would investigate that to see if it will work for you. Unhealthy teeth make for an unhealthy cat and it is important he have the dental work done. Cats do just fine without teeth and it won't interfere with his eating and having a good life free of dental disease and pain.
Reply:I am so sorry to read this...

Well, i would suggest you to take her to a holistic vet that would look for alternative treatments like accupunture, homeopathy etc, or use traditional medicine/treatment if required...

And strongly suggest you to change her diet to raw... this will help her a lot...

The horrible pet food that is sold everywhere does these things to our pets and other kind of diseases :( ...

I will pray for you and your cat :)
Reply:3 yrs ago my baby lost all her teeth and her gums got all infected.She couldn'teat and was in severe pain.She was 18 yrs old.I had to put her to sleep.I still have moments where I miss her terribly.Sometimes we have to make that decision to put them at peace.I am really sorry about your trouble.